Kabufuda are traditional Japanese cards derived from European cards brought to Japan by
the Portuguese in the 16th century that were quickly banned by the shogunate because they were
used mainly for gambling.
So the gamblers played a cat and mouse game with the authorities, inventing new decks that were
soon banned until hanafuda appeared in the 18th century ( hanafuda cards have no numeric values
so they escaped being banned but were ultimately used also by gamblers )
I don’t know exactly what place kabufuda have in the line of decks invented to escape the gambling
ban but they survived until today and are still manufactured, mainly by Nintendo.
A deck of kabufuda cards have 40 cards numbered from 1 to 10, not suited, so there are 4 cards for each value ( in the set made by Nintendo there is 1 extra card, a Jack, that is usually not used )
Kabufuda cards are typically used for gambling games, like Oicho-Kabu, that is similar to Baccarat,
the goal being to reach 9 points.
The worst hand in Oicho-Kabu : 8-9-3 is phonetically expressed as ya-ku-za and is the origin of
the name of the Japanese gangsters who were the ones running the gambling dens in the days.
The Nintendo set bears the image of Napoleon ( along with the two ” Daitoryo ” hanafuda decks,
black & red ).